By Gijs J. O. Vermeer
An important aspect for winning 3-D seismic survey layout is a simple figuring out of the spatial houses of the seismic wavefield. those homes have been defined for 2-D seismic info in Seismic Wavefield Sampling via an analogous writer. This ebook extends the outline into the even more complicated box of 3D seismic facts. A bankruptcy on directions for survey layout interprets conception into perform. a few case histories illustrate the suggestions. Noise suppression, solution, and imaging are mentioned intimately. Converted-wave survey layout is roofed in a separate bankruptcy. This ebook presents crucial wisdom for any acquisition or processing geophysicist and is suggested to every person facing 3-D seismic info. An incorporated CD-ROM additionally includes an Acquisition layout Wizard and survey optimization software program.
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S t a n d a r d A d d i t i o n s An alternative to direct c o m p a r i s o n s of samples and stand a r d s is the addition of i n c r e m e n t s of standard solutions to aliquot s of the sample. This m e t h o d is time-consuming. It is used w h e n interference p r o b l e m s o c c u r (except for nonspecific interferences). T h e a p p r o a c h is particularly valuable in electrothermal work. T h e usual p r o c e d u r e is to p r e p a r e t h r e e aliquot s. O n e of the aliquots is spiked with a quantity of standard so that the resulting analyte concentration is approximately twice that of the original sample.
4. Hollow-cathode lamp. T h e lifetime of a lamp will d e p e n d on the element used as the c a t h o d e , hours of use, strength of the current, and filler gas leakage. However, good-quality lamps will last for several y e a r s . E a c h lamp should be operated for a brief time (about 30 min) each month even if it has not been required for analytical work. A weak lamp can sometimes be regenerated by reversing the leads to the electrodes and operating the lamp at a few milliamperes for about 10 min.
Sodium, potassium, rubidium, and cesium ionize readily in air/acetylene flames. T h e magnitude of the problem increases from sodium to cesium. At higher temperatures in nitrous oxide/acetylene flames, calcium, strontium, and the rare e a r t h s are ionized. Ionization effects can be controlled with additions of an easily ionized element to standards in o r d e r to c o m p e n s a t e for the p r e s e n c e of a particular element in the sample. F o r e x a m p l e , if elements I. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry 29 are being m e a s u r e d in the p r e s e n c e of a major a m o u n t of sodium, the standards should also contain a large a m o u n t (1000 ppm) of sodium.