By Kaare Christian
Modula-2 is a straightforward but strong programming language that's appropriate for a large choice of functions. it really is in line with Pascal, a profitable programming language that used to be brought in 1970 via Niklaus Wirth. through the 1970's Pascal turned the main largely taught programming language and it won recognition in technology and undefined. In 1980 Dr. Wirth published the Modula-2 application ming language. Modula-2 is an evolution of Pascal. It improves at the successes of Pascal whereas including the MODULE - a device for ex urgent the family members among the most important elements of courses. In advert dition Modula-2 includes low-level beneficial properties for structures application ming and coroutines for concurrent programming. Programming languages are vital simply because they're used to precise principles. a few programming languages are so constrained that sure rules cannot be simply expressed. for instance languages that lac okay floating element mathematics are beside the point for clinical com putations. Languages akin to easy and Fortran that lack recur sion are flawed for textual content processing or structures programming. occasionally a programming language is useable for a undeniable appli cation however it is way from excellent. a very good instance is the trouble of writing huge courses in natural Pascal. Pascal is a bad language for big jobs since it lacks amenities for partitioning a software viii Preface 6< ; ~~~~er zero\ Sheet steel Tube /" zero (to Affix Eraser to Shaft) ~ hole wood Shaft A Lead middle determine 1. An exploded diagram. into separate items that may be built independently.
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Extra info for A Guide to Modula-2
Data in Modula-2 31 To provide a level of abstraction above the machine's own, Modula-2 (and virtually all other languages) have an assortment of data TYPES. A data TYPE defines a certain set of values and the operations that can be applied to those values. For example the common whole number TYPE named INTEGER has as its values the positive and negative counting numbers that can be represented on a particular machine. On sixteen bit computers the Modula-2 INTEGER TYPE encompasses the values between -32768 and +32767.
Although comments may help a human reader to understand a program, they don't have any effect on the operation of a program. You can place anything inside a comment including another comment. Comments begin with the constructed brace, " (* " and end with the brace " *) ". Comments may extend over one line or many and they can be placed between two symbols in a program. Here are three comments: (* A one line comment * ) (* A two line comment. * ) (* * Comments often are used as headings * ******** ***** *** **** ** ******** *) Nested comments exist when one comment encloses another.
INTEGER An INTEGER is a whole number that can attain positive and negative values. INTEGERS can range from MIN(INTEGER) to MAX(INTEGER) The range is usually defined by the word size of the underlying machine. On sixteen bit computers the range is usually from -32768 to 32767. The comparison operators discussed in the previous subsection apply to INTEGERS. The result of comparing two INTEGERS is a BOOLEAN value. It is illegal to compare an INTEGER with a CARDINAL. Five arithmetic operations apply to INTEGERS: + * DIV MOD All five arithmetic operators require that both operands are INTEGERS.