Economic Policy

A Political and Economic Dictionary of the Middle East by David Seddon

By David Seddon

This reference quantity is the definitive advisor to the economics and politics of the center East. It presents transparent definitions detailing phrases, ideas, names and firms utilized in relation to present financial or political beliefs within the heart East. Entries outline, clarify and provides extra suitable info on international locations, areas, ethnic teams, political events, firms, regulations and disputes.

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This included support in the form of safe haven training, logistic assistance and financial aid from Iraq, Libya and Syria. During 1989 bloody internal conflicts seriously weakened the Organization. ‘Abu Nidal’ left Libya, where he had been based, and relocated to Iraq, although the group maintained an operational presence in Lebanon, where it was established in several Palestinian refugee camps. Financial and internal disorganization during the 1990s reduced the group’s activities and capabilities.

Having been sentenced to death for opposition activities, Hocine was subsequently pardoned and escaped to France. In 1999 he stood as a presidential candidate in Algeria, but later withdrew his candidacy in opposition to political fraud. Ahoti —see Sista-Ahoti Ahvaz Ancient city on the banks of the Karun river (Iran). Named Suq al-Ahvaz by Arab conquerors in AD 637 (Ahvaz being the plural of Huzi/Khuzi, the local tribe), Ahvaz is today the capital of the Iranian province of Kuzistan. Boosted by the discovery of petroleum in the region in 1908, Ahvaz grew to become a prosperous city with a population of around 725,000 (1991).

In September 2001 Jund militants slit the throats and mutilated more than 20 PUK peshmerga. They also attempted to assassinate Barham Salih, the PUK’s Prime Minister. In the winter of 2002–03 they merged with another small group called Islah (‘reform’) to constitute Ansar al-Islam. The group has, perhaps, 1,000 members, who seek to establish an independent Islamic state in northern Iraq. The group has claimed to have produced cyanide-based toxins, ricin, and aflatoxin. It is also reputed to have had links with, or even to include, Afghan Arabs and members of al-Qa’ida, but this is denied by the leadership—although Ansar’s leader, Mullah Krekar, has described Osama bin Laden as ‘the jewel in the crown of the Muslim nation’.

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