By Robert Logan, Adam Harris, J. J. Misiewicz, J. H. Baron
(BMJ Books) Univ. sanatorium, Nottingham, united kingdom. presents a concise advisor to issues of the higher gastrointestinal tract. hugely illustrated with charts, diagrams, and colour pictures. displays most recent advances in realizing the pathophysiology and pathogenesis of this affliction. For clinical scholars, nurses, and clinicians. Softcover.
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(BMJ Books) Univ. sanatorium, Nottingham, united kingdom. presents a concise consultant to issues of the higher gastrointestinal tract. hugely illustrated with charts, diagrams, and colour pictures. displays most modern advances in figuring out the pathophysiology and pathogenesis of this ailment. For clinical scholars, nurses, and clinicians.
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Extra info for ABC of the Upper Gastrointestinal
Some patients report having troublesome burping associated with abdominal bloating or discomfort that is transiently relieved by bringing up the wind. These patients have aerophagy, and repeated swallowing of air may be obvious during the consultation. Causes of dyspepsia History taking is key to identifying the likely cause of dyspepsia. Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease It is important and practical to distinguish gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) from dyspepsia. Frequent heartburn is a cardinal symptom of GORD; acid reflux causes a retrosternal or epigastric burning feeling that characteristically radiates up towards the throat, is relieved transiently by antacids, and is precipitated by a meal or by lying down.
Functional dyspepsia Most commonly, either no abnormalities or irrelevant abnormalities (such as gastric erythema or a few gastric erosions) are found at endoscopy; these patients are labelled as having functional (or non-ulcer) dyspepsia. As antisecretory drugs may result in healing of ulcers or oesophagitis (and hence lead to a misdiagnosis of functional dyspepsia), these drugs are best not started before endoscopy if possible. Functional dyspepsia Pathogenesis The pathogenesis of functional dyspepsia remains uncertain.
About a third of patients with functional dyspepsia have an erratic disturbance of defecation closely linked to their pain, and probably truly have irritable bowel syndrome. There is also evidence of gut hypersensitivity in both functional dyspepsia and the irritable bowel syndrome. Smoking and alcohol do not seem to be important in functional dyspepsia, but coffee ingestion has been linked to exacerbation of symptoms. Some patients with functional dyspepsia suffer from an anxiety disorder or depression, but whether this is cause or effect remains unclear.