By J. C. Van Loon
Written for the practising analyst, Analytical tools for Geochemical Exploration bargains completely established chemical research equipment for settling on what base or invaluable metals are in geochemical exploration samples, comparable to rocks, soil, or sediment. idea is stored to a minimal and entire methods are supplied in order that no extra assets are had to behavior analyses
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Extra resources for Analytical Methods for Geochemical Exploration
S t a n d a r d A d d i t i o n s An alternative to direct c o m p a r i s o n s of samples and stand a r d s is the addition of i n c r e m e n t s of standard solutions to aliquot s of the sample. This m e t h o d is time-consuming. It is used w h e n interference p r o b l e m s o c c u r (except for nonspecific interferences). T h e a p p r o a c h is particularly valuable in electrothermal work. T h e usual p r o c e d u r e is to p r e p a r e t h r e e aliquot s. O n e of the aliquots is spiked with a quantity of standard so that the resulting analyte concentration is approximately twice that of the original sample.
4. Hollow-cathode lamp. T h e lifetime of a lamp will d e p e n d on the element used as the c a t h o d e , hours of use, strength of the current, and filler gas leakage. However, good-quality lamps will last for several y e a r s . E a c h lamp should be operated for a brief time (about 30 min) each month even if it has not been required for analytical work. A weak lamp can sometimes be regenerated by reversing the leads to the electrodes and operating the lamp at a few milliamperes for about 10 min.
Sodium, potassium, rubidium, and cesium ionize readily in air/acetylene flames. T h e magnitude of the problem increases from sodium to cesium. At higher temperatures in nitrous oxide/acetylene flames, calcium, strontium, and the rare e a r t h s are ionized. Ionization effects can be controlled with additions of an easily ionized element to standards in o r d e r to c o m p e n s a t e for the p r e s e n c e of a particular element in the sample. F o r e x a m p l e , if elements I. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry 29 are being m e a s u r e d in the p r e s e n c e of a major a m o u n t of sodium, the standards should also contain a large a m o u n t (1000 ppm) of sodium.