Applied Geomorphology for Mitigation of Natural Hazards by Masahiko Oya (auth.)

By Masahiko Oya (auth.)

There are many normal dangers similar to floods, landslides, volcanoes and earthquakes within the Asia-Pacific quarter. however, there are few reports of such ordinary dangers during this area and data approximately their mitigation is of the maximum value.
This publication files using geomorphological maps exhibiting the nation of flooding; those maps enable predictions to be made. the writer has compiled geomorphological maps and documentation in their validation, and the maps enable not just estimation of flooding, but in addition prediction of soil liquefaction as a result of earthquakes.
Audience: the result of the discussions during this booklet practice not just to geographers, experts, engineers and coverage makers in Japan and Southeast Asian international locations, but in addition to these from Europe, North the USA, and Africa.

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1. BASIC FORM OF ALLUVIAL PLAINS The normal method offormation of the fluvial plains is considered to be as follows: First, a natural levee forms along a river course; second, new channels form, partly because of variations in river flow and partly from changes in the volume of sand and gravel transported by the river. Next, natural levees form along the new river course. The natural levees consist of sand and gravel in the upper parts of the plains and of sand and silt or clay in the lower. As the coefficient of adhesion of sand and gravel is less than that of sand, silt or clay, the levees of the upper parts of the plain are readily destroyed by the streams.

10 0 20 30 Day I '\ July v 1\ 1940 \ July Dec. 1- Dec. 9 Number of"frozen days" and "partially frozen days" each month, and ratio of monthly rainfall to annual at Chupungnyang (Oya, 1971; modified) (I) Frozen days, (2) Partially frozen days. Jan. 0 v ['. 1/ ~ Vr-.. 20 20 II\ 30 30 10 40 70 1937 Jan. 40 70 Jan. Dec. 20 20 July 30 30 10 0 Day Day 1 .. 2. GEOLOGIC CONDITIONS There are many igneous rocks, especially granite, distributed in the Tebek Mountains and Shobek Mountains. Such rock types are highly susceptible to mechanical weathering.

6. Combination of Overflowing and Concentration Types: The Kano River A third type, which is rather rare, can be created by combining the two main types. The upper and lower parts of the Kano River Plain in the Izu Peninsula are separated by narrows in the river channel. Those narrows are formed by Mount Kanuki and by the Mishima Fan, which consists ofmudflow from Fuji Volcano. Natural levees and back-marshes are developed in the Takata Plain. ). At that time, thick marine clay was deposited.

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