By D. H. Griffiths and R. F. King (Auth.)
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Extra resources for Applied Geophysics for Geologists and Engineers. The Elements of Geophysical Prospecting
In shallow water such closely spaced multiples can give the seismic section the appearance of having been "tuned" by passage through a filter with a narrow pass-band of frequencies and their removal Fig. e. "migrated" and "immigrated") positions of a reflector including a gentle syncline and anticline, and another syncline with a radius of curvature smaller than its depth below the surface. Seismic Surveys and their Interpretation 55 Fig. 11(b) Unmigrated (above) and migrated (below) sections illustrating the effects of Fig.
The group may cover up to 100 m and the detectors in it are so arranged that its output emphasizes the reflections arriving on near-vertical ray paths at the expense of unwanted events such as surface waves. In what follows we shall think of the group as equivalent to a single detector at its centre, and shall refer to "geophones" whilst not excluding hydrophones. AGG - D 38 Applied Geophysics for Geologists and Engineers Underdamped Normcil damping Frequency Fig. 2 Output of a geophone as a function of frequency for different degrees of damping.
This leads not only to incorrect predictions of absolute depth to reflecting layers but, more seriously, to uncertainties in relative depths, that is in the structure which the method is supposed to determine. For example, a high-velocity bed which varies in thickness laterally will give reduced travel times to deeper reflectors below its thickest part, and if the high-velocity bed is not itself identifiable, these times may be interpreted as a significant local reduction in the depth to the lower horizons.