Basic Principles in Applied Catalysis by Friedrich Schmidt (auth.), Professor Dr. Manfred Baerns

By Friedrich Schmidt (auth.), Professor Dr. Manfred Baerns (eds.)

Written by way of a group of across the world well-known specialists, this ebook addresses an important sorts of catalytic reactions and catalysts as utilized in commercial perform. either utilized elements and the basic medical ideas are defined. the most themes may be summarized as follows: heterogeneous, homogeneous and biocatalysis, catalyst education and characterization, catalytic response engineering and kinetics, catalyst deactivation and commercial perspective.

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The first class corresponds to the mixed oxide of MoNlNb (plus other components in minor amounts) first described in the paper by Thorsteinson et al. [122]. This paper can be considered as a milestone in the field of the selective oxidation of paraffins, in view of the number of active compounds which have been developed starting from catalysts therein described, and which exhibit surprising properties in the oxidative transformation of saturated hydrocarbons. Several patents have been issued by Union Carbide [123127] regarding this catalytic system.

TrifIro along the reactor may in part overcome the problem of ammonia combustion, and might also favour the transformation of the olefin formed to acrylonitrile. 0° [204]. This active phase is referred to as phase M2. 4°). The two phases are claimed to cooperate in the ammoxidation of propane, each one having a defined role: in the activation of propane to yield propylene (phase MI), and in the transformation of the latter into acrylonitrile (phase M2) [210]. So it seems that the best performance is obtained in the contemporaneous presence of these two compounds.

In the case of ethane oxychlorination, on the contrary, excess of HCI is necessary to maintain the chlorinated form of copper in the active phase, CuCI2, since the oxychloride form, CuCICuO (a mixed CUI/CUll compound) is considered to be the species responsible for total combustion. Therefore this kind of operation makes it possible to reduce the amount of carbon oxides produced. It is claimed that the greater the excess of HCI supplied over its stoichiometric requirement, the greater the beneficial effect on the selectivity.

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