Decorative Arts Design

Bicycle design : an illustrated history by Tony Hadland & Hans-Erhard Lessing & Nick Clayton & Gary W.

By Tony Hadland & Hans-Erhard Lessing & Nick Clayton & Gary W. Sanderson

The bicycle ranks as the most enduring, most generally used cars on the earth, with greater than 1000000000 produced in the course of nearly 2 hundred years of biking background. This e-book bargains an authoritative and complete account of the bicycle's technical and ancient evolution, from the earliest velocipedes (invented to fill the necessity for horseless shipping in the course of a scarcity of oats) to glossy racing motorcycles, mountain motorcycles, and recumbents. It lines the bicycle's improvement when it comes to fabrics, ergonomics, and motor vehicle physics, as performed through inventors, marketers, and manufacturers.

Written by means of major bicycle historians and generously illustrated with ancient drawings, designs, and pictures, Bicycle Design describes the most important phases within the evolution of the bicycle, starting with the counterintuitive notion of balancing on wheels in line, in the course of the improvement of tension-spoked wheels, oblique drives (employing levers, pulleys, chains, and chainwheels), and pneumatic tires. The authors research the additional improvement of the bicycle for such particular reasons as racing, portability, and all-terrain use; and so they describe the evolution of bicycle parts together with seats, transmission, brakes, lighting (at first candle-based), and vendors (racks, panniers, saddlebags, baby seats, and sidecars). they give thought to not just commercially profitable designs but in addition advertisement mess ups that pointed tips to destiny technological advancements. And they debunk a few myths approximately bicycles -- for instance, the flawed yet often-cited concept that Leonardo sketched a chain-drive motorbike in his notebooks. regardless of the bicycle's lengthy historical past and mass attraction, its technological historical past has been ignored. This quantity, with its enticing and wide-ranging insurance, fills that hole. it will likely be the start line for all destiny histories of the bicycle.

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He opened two riding schools in London. His illegitimate son John served as an instructor, and also demonstrated 24 C hapter 1 the machines in various English cities. Ludicrous names for the vehicles sprang up—Hobby, Hobby-Horse, Dandy-Horse, German Horse (Shields 2012). The price of a velocipede ranged from £8 to £10, equivalent to about £590–£740 in presentday currency according to the Bank of England’s inflation calculator. There was widespread unauthorized copying. In Dublin, two Irish builders operated riding schools (Street 2011, 171).

Period carriages had no such brakes; they were stopped by the draft animals alone, or, when going downhill, by a skid shoe. In 1817 Drais offered a range of Laufmaschinen, including a tandem and several “ladies’ draisines” (some with three wheels, some with four). A ladies’ model had a comfortable seat between the front wheels. Drais maintained that a female passenger could “sit deeply enough not to get sick” (1817c). 9 A period method of braking a carriage (Ginzrot 1830). 10 Drais’s range of draisines (Lessing 2003a).

The steering bar shown in his patent drawing looped out over the front wheel, attaching loosely to the front axle; presumably it could be rotated 120º to serve as a stand for parking. 13 Denis Johnson’s patent specification drawing of November 1818. In Johnson’s second-generation velocipedes, the steering arrangement was different. Similar to the French style, a short handlebar was bolted directly to the top of the fork stem. Trail remained absent. Steering was still accomplished partly by means of body movement.

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