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Additional resources for Bridge Foundations and Substructures
The effectiveness of the technique for soft clays has not yet beenestablished. The range ofapplication and effectivenessis not clearly understood. Grouting Grouting has beenused frequentlyfor stabilising fissured rock, particularly in regions of old mineworking. Othersoils are very seldom ideal for grouting and manyengineers are opposed to it because ofthe difficultyof making the grout go where it should and not go where it shouldn't. Much damage can be done by using excessive pressure. Reference with InstitutionofCivil Engineers(1976).
Testis onlya crude index testfor comparing differentsoils, and that unduerefinement oftheory canbe misleading. Sutherland (1974),Peck Hansen and Thomburn,Lambe and Whitman,and others, charts relating N-value bearing pressure and settlement. Used by a few. Terzaghi and Peck, and Meyerhof bearing capacity factors. (Terzaghi and Peck,Article33, Tomlinson Ch2). Not generally appropriate since settlement Load test. 6. Halfbearing capacity on dry ground. Commonly used (see Tomlinson p 98/99). Factorsofsafetyadoptedto limit settlementand local failure.
Otherwise serious differences ofopinionare likely during the contract. Footings transmitting inclined loadsto the ground are much easier to construct with horizontal and vertical faces than with bearing face normal to line ofthrust. 30 ttL. 11. 8 Piers Type Comment Sketch Usage The simplest piers to construct,and most Common economic, are usually vertical with uniform rectangular or circular section and fixed at the bottom to the foundations. Inspection and placing of concrete is facilitated ifthe pier is large enoughfor a manto climb down inside.